There is no reason to assume that the universe has the slightest interest in intelligence—or even in life. Both may be random accidental by-products of its operations like the beautiful patterns on a butterfly’s wings. The insect would fly just as well without them.Goodreads.com. (2019). Arthur C. Clarke Quotes (Author of 2001). [online] Available at: https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/7779.Arthur_C_Clarke [Accessed 16 Dec. 2019].